A sidebar guide to earth.nullschool.net
Wind speed + direction
Wind Power Density
3-hour Precip. Accumulation
Convective Potential Energy
Total Precipitable Water
Total Cloud Water
Mean Sea Level Pressure
Sea Surface Temperature
Significant Wave Height
Partial Pressure of CO2
Sea-Air CO2 Flux Density
Carbon monoxide concent.
Carbon dioxide concent.
Sulfur dioxide surface mass
Particulate Matter < 1 µm
Particulate Matter < 2.5 µm
Particulate Matter < 10 µm
Height is measured in pressure (in hectopascals, or hPa).
1 hectopascal (hPa) = 1 millibar (mb). Pressure decreases as you go higher in elevation. Because air pressure varies with temperature, heights are approximate.
Wind speed and direction at specified height. Note: animated speed relative to map is not to scale.
Air temperature at specified height
3-hour precipitation accumulation - the total predicted amount of rain, snow, or other precipitation predicted over the next three hours
Total Cloud Water, or the total mass per volume of water and ice in cloud form
Misery Index, or the perceived temperature (as opposed to actual temperature) due to humidity (in hot environments) or wind chill (in cold environments).
A note on update frequency
Unlike atmospheric model data,
- Currents are updated every 5 days
- SST and SSTA are updated daily
- Waves are updated every 3 hours
Partial Pressure of CO2 in seawater at the surface. The units of pCO2 are in µatm, which is roughly equivalent to parts per million, or ppm. (Compare to ppmv of CO2sc in the Chem section). When the ocean and atmosphere interact, CO2 passes between them. When the ocean's pCO2 is lower than the atmosphere's ppmv, atmospheric CO2 is dissolved into ocean water. When the opposite is true, CO2 is released from the ocean into the atmosphere. In addition to atmospheric CO2 levels, the ocean's pCO2 levels are influenced by things like biological photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification.
Sea-Air CO2 Flux Density, the rate at which CO2 passes between the ocean and the atmosphere (see detail of pCO2 above). Positive values mean that more CO2 passing from the ocean to the atmosphere, negative values mean the opposite. Units are in mols per square meter per year (one mol of CO2 is approximately 44g or 1.55 oz).
The concentration of carbon monoxide in the air at the Earth's surface (note CO is measured in parts per billion per volume (ppbv) while CO2 is measured in parts per million per volume (ppmv). This is a good tool for searching for forest fires.
The mass of sulfur dioxide in the air at the Earth's surface. (Sulfur dioxide comes from both natural and man-made sources. For example, see heavily industrialized areas with many coal-fired plants. Also, find Hawaii on the map, and turn off animation to see sulfur dioxide coming from the erupting volcano Mauna Loa, as well as the exhaust from ships along major shipping lanes).
About aerosol optical thickness
An aerosol is air containing particles. Common particles are dust, smoke, soot, and water droplets (clouds). These particles absorb and scatter sunlight, reducing the amount of light reaching the ground. This reduction of light as it passes through the atmosphere is called extinction.
Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is (the log of) the ratio between the power of incoming light and the power of transmitted light. The thicker the aerosol, the less light passes through.